22.12 ARE GUIDES COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN ?
Smith, Barry W. (American Sport Fish, PO Drawer 20050, Montgomery, AL 36120)
During the late 1960s, the propagation of striped bass, Morone saxatilis, sent waves of excitement through fishermen and fishery managers of warm water reservoirs. Throughout the early and mid 1970s, fishable populations of striped bass were established in many reservoirs throughout the U.S. To the surprise of many fishery managers, these resources of striped bass were often under-utilized by the fisherman. Spring spawning runs below hydroelectric dams accounted for the primary catch. The late 1970s and 1980s saw reservoirs with multi-year classes of striped bass and/or hybrid striped bass. Also emerging were innovative anglers with sophisticated electronic equipment and modern live bait tanks who had patterned seasonal movement of these Morones and could place a live bait in front of their mouths at depths ranging up to 60 feet. Many of these same anglers became full-time and part-time professional guides carrying two to six fishermen per day for 200 to 300 plus days a year. Presently, professional guide services make a significant cumulative impact on put, grow, and take Monroe fisheries. Is this commercial harvest? Future management strategies will have to reflect the influence of professional guides on the resource.
22.13 COMMERCIAL CULTURIST'S RESPONSIBILITY TO RESOURCE AND CONSUMER
Freeze, Mike (Keo Fish Farm, PO Box 123, Highway 165 N. Keo, AR 72083)
Commercial production of Morone species was stimulated by successful fingerling programs of natural resource agencies. As commercial interests utilized wild brood fish, they inherited certain responsibilities to the resource. State natural resource agencies either demanded mitigation as payment for access or denied commercial entities access to wild brood fish. Early culturists fulfilled their responsibility to enhance or protect the resource by abiding by state mitigation requirement, while initiating domestic broodstock programs. Although commercial production of Morone species has decreased commercial fishing pressure on wild stocks, the commercial culturist is sensitive to potential poaching of wild fish and is supportive of reasonable legislation for the identification of farm raised fish. The commercial culturist's responsibility to the consumer consists primarily of providing a contaminant-free, high quality product at a reasonable price on a year-round basis. To accomplish this, the food fish producer depends upon a reliable source of quality fingerlings. Continued domestication of Morone species brood fish will greatly increase the reliability and quality of fingerlings in the near future.
22.14 CULTURE OF STRIPED BASS AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL
Parker, Nick C. (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-2125)
Natural resource managers in the United States have propagated and stocked striped bass for over 100 years and hatchery production continues to be an important management tool. The popularity of hatchery programs has cycled from high to low to high in about 30-year periods as public support and management needs have changed. Habitat alteration-including dams, diversions, channelization. and pollution-and the growing demand for fish and fishery products have increased the need for hatchery-produced and farm-raised fish State and federal hatcheries are expected to become increasingly important as tools to preserve biodiversity by maintaining rare, threatened and endangered genotypes. Hatcheries are important educational tools and will be used to produce fish in support of innovative programs such as fishing in urban parks, shopping malls, and other non-traditional environments as resource managers seek to broaden support for fishery programs and attract new anglers. Fish culture operations must evolve to meet these new challenges as societys values change in response to antihunting, antifishing, and animal rights groups.
**Reprinted from Communications: Are we making contact? 120th Annual Meeting of the American Fisheries Society, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. August 1990.
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